Consciousness Media interview of Acharya S image
Online video
 "You can

donate help
Truth Be Known logo with the Egyptian goddess Maat's Feather of Truth
religion mythology archaeology history astrotheology archeoastronomy online since 1995

Come join me! Facebook image Come join Acharya on Twitter Acharya on Google+ Acharya's Youtube channel Acharya on Linked In Acharya on Tumblr

David's Jerusalem: Fiction or Reality?

Excerpted from the July/August 1998 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review

It's Not There: Archaeology Proves a Negative
Margreet Steiner

The history of Jerusalem is going to have to be rewritten. As we gradually assimilate the archaeological record, we are finding more and more evidence that calls into question long-held assumptions about the city's past. This is especially true of the three periods I will discuss here, which are already the subject of heated debate: the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II. The history of these periods is particularly sensitive in that it ultimately involves the historicity of the glorious reigns of David and Solomon—at least, according to the Bible—and the existence of the United Monarchy of Israel.

The Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 B.C.E.) is the period just before Israel, whatever its actual nature, began to emerge in the hill country of Palestine. Iron Age I (1200-1000 B.C.E.), the period of the Judges in Biblical terms, is the era just before the 12 Israelite tribes supposedly united. The beginning of Iron Age II encompasses the United Monarchy. David's "conquest" of Jerusalem is usually dated to about 1000 B.C.E. According to the Bible, David and Solomon each reigned 40 years.

What was Jerusalem like in the period before the emergence of Israel? What was it like during the 200-year period of the Judges, when, according to the Bible, Israel was unable to possess Jerusalem? (Though the Israelites conquered the city, they apparently could not hold it [Judges 1:8].) How much of the stirring account of David's conquest is historically accurate? Did a city of any note exist there during the time of David and Solomon?

Failure to publish the evidence from the large excavations conducted in Jerusalem since 1960 has created severe problems for scholars who wish to evaluate the Jerusalem of these periods. The directors of all four major excavations died without writing final reports. Between 1961 and 1967 Kathleen Kenyon excavated on the southeastern hill known as the City of David, the oldest inhabited part of Jerusalem. From 1968 to 1978, following the Six-Day War, Benjamin Mazar excavated south of the Temple Mount in the area known as the Ophel. Nahman Avigad excavated in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City from 1969 to 1983. And Yigal Shiloh excavated the City of David from 1978 to 1985. Not one final report from these excavations has been completed, although teams of archaeologists are now working on them in Jerusalem; Manchester, England; and Leiden, the Netherlands….

The history of Jerusalem in the Late Bronze and Iron Ages is usually based on an analysis of written sources—the Bible and some archaeological texts and documents, such as the 14th-century B.C.E. Amarna letters from Egypt. Archaeological materials from Jerusalem itself are then used to clarify and confirm this picture. However, I shall proceed here from the opposite direction, starting with the archaeological evidence from the site.

Most of the Late Bronze Age material recovered from Jerusalem has come from tombs, especially one on the Mount of Olives that contained hundreds of pots, mainly of local ware, and from a pit south of the city, which held some pottery and a scarab.

But no remains of a town, let alone a city, have ever been found: not a trace of an encircling wall, no gate, no houses. Not a single piece of architecture. Simply nothing!

Enter your name and email address below:
Subscribe Unsubscribe

Donate to keep us going!

• A Little Joke
• An Atheist Here to Destroy?
• Bible Contradictions
• The Bible as History?
• The Buddha Myth
• Christian Atrocities | Victims of Christianity
• Crucifixion of the Intelligence
• David's Jerusalem
• Does the Cosmos Know the Pope Exists?
• God the Mother
• Historical Truths of the Bible
• Environmental Statistics
• In Memoriam
• Is the Bible True?
• Is Buddhism Any Good?
• Geert Wilders's 'Fitna: The Movie' Review
• The Mormon Church
• My God is Bigger than Yours!
• One World Religion
• The Pre-Nicene New Testament Review
• Princess Diana
• Proof God Doesn't Exist
• Origins of Islam | Islamic History
• Religion is Mental Illness
• The Secret History of Rock 'N' Roll
• Stupid Ideology
• Voltaire on Abraham
• The Walls of Jericho
• Who are the Anunnaki? | What is the Planet Nibiru?
• What is God?
• What is the Secret?
• Who is Jesus Christ?
• Religion & Spirituality Articles
• Christ Conspiracy Articles
• Quotes from Lunatics & Luminaries
• Stellar House Publishing Articles

"Murdock's scholarship is relentless! ...the research conducted by D.M. Murdock concerning the myth of Jesus Christ is certainly both valuable and worthy of consideration." —Dr. Kenneth L. Feder, Professor of Archaeology, Central Connecticut State University, Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience In Archaeology

"I find myself in full agreement with Acharya S/D.M. Murdock... I find it undeniable that...many, many of the epic heroes and ancient patriarchs and matriarchs of the Old Testament were personified stars, planets and constellations..." —Dr. Robert M. Price, The Pre-Nicene New Testament

"I can recommend your work whole-heartedly!" —Dr. Robert Eisenman, James the Brother of Jesus and The New Testament Code,

"...I have found Murdock's scholarship, research, knowledge of the original languages, and creative linkages to be breathtaking and highly stimulating." —Rev. Dr. Jon Burnham, Pastor, Presbyterian Church, Houston, TX

"Acharya S deserves to be recognized as a leading researcher and an expert in the field of comparative mythology, on a par with James Frazer or Robert Graves—indeed, superior to those forerunners in the frankness of her conclusions and the volume of her evidence." —Barbara Walker, The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets and Man Made God

"I've known people with triple Ph.D's who haven't come close to the scholarship in Who Was Jesus?" —Pastor David Bruce, M.Div, North Park Seminary, Chicago,

"Thirty years ago, when in divinity school, I might have had second thoughts about becoming an Episcopal priest if a book like D. M. Murdock's Who Was Jesus? had been available to me." —Bob Semes, Retired university professor of History and Religion, Founder and Executive Director of The Jefferson Center

"Ms. Murdock is one of only a tiny number of scholars with the richly diverse academic background (and the necessary courage) to adequately address the question of whether Jesus Christ truly existed as a walking-talking figure in first-century Palestine." —David Mills, Atheist Universe

Join me



Freethought Gear

Freethought Gear products image

Support this site!